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Health and safety


Crowd management planning

Venues are large, complicated spaces.  The management of crowds within them requires:

  • excellent teamwork
  • clear communication
  • coordination between those responsible for the overall organisation and those dealing with the crowds face to face. 


Developing the crowd management plan 

A key responsibility of the Event Safety Management Team is to gather core data to inform the development of the crowd safety management plan. The team must:  

  • research the types of visitor that are expected and anticipate likely crowd behaviour
  • collate and assess information (if available) about the health and safety records of previous events at the same venue
  • liaise with outside organisations such as the Police and emergency services, which have extensive knowledge and experience
  • conduct a risk assessment to determine the adequacy of arrangements for controlling crowds, and change them if necessary
  • inspect the venue and review crowd safety arrangements at regular intervals
  • set targets for crowd management (for example, if queues extend past a particular point, specify that another service point should be opened).


Guidelines, manuals


Reducing the risk of overcrowding

The following measures must be put in place to reduce the dangers of overcrowding, at both indoor and outdoor venues:

  • sufficient numbers of trained and competent stewards and marshals must at least satisfy minimum legal requirements
  • turnstiles - limiting the number and positions of turnstiles can control the flow and build-up of spectators, but too few can lead to a corresponding build-up on the other side
  • barriers for directing movement
  • adequate, evenly spaced facilities, e.g. toilets, refreshment areas
  • clear signposting
  • a simple and clearly audible public address system
  • allow sufficient space for crowd access/egress.


Last updated 11 January 2013